Yes you can. But let’s remember the Social Security definition of disability is the inability to work because of your condition for at least a 12 month period of time. Modern medicine has been really good and making great strides in treating cancer and many times even though you have cancer you can undergo surgery or chemotherapy or radiation or other kinds of cancer treatment and your cancer can be controlled in less than one year and the symptoms of your treatment do not linger for more than a year.
If that’s the case then you really don’t have a condition that meets the definition of disability for Social Security benefits. On the other hand, there are people whose condition cannot be controlled by treatment or who have severe and lingering side effects from the treatment that are debilitating. if this is the case for you and it looks like you’re not going to be able to work for at least one year, then you have a good claim for Social Security Disability benefits.